Atypical clinical presentation of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis or Still’s disease: a report of two cases

Case report 

Atypical clinical presentation of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis or Still´s disease: a report of two cases

Emeline Tiogouo1,&, Paul Eloundou1, Hermine Moukodi1, Leo Fozeu2, Guy Sadeu Wafeu2,3

1Pediatric Unit, Efoulan District Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3Centre for Research on Filariasis and Other Tropical Diseases, Yaoundé, Cameroon

 

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) constitutes a group of arthritis of unknown origin that begins before the age of 16 years. Still´s disease is the systemic form of this condition. Its clinical presentation is marked by fever, rash and sometimes joint pain, in the absence of evidence of another aetiology of the fever. We present the cases of two boys aged 4 and 10 years admitted for fever, with a cerebral origin for the first and no infectious site for the second. Fever persisted after antimalarial treatment and adequate antibiotics. Ferritinaemia, elevated sedimentation rate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, and increased serum transaminases, all in the absence of evidence of other inflammatory or malignant diseases were suggestive of Still’s disease. Both children received a corticosteroid therapy with progressive dose reduction associated to methotrexate during treatment. Fever disappeared within a few hours after initiation of corticosteroid therapy, with considerable improvement in clinical state. To the best of our knowledge, these cases are among the rare cases of childhood Still disease reported in sub-Saharan Africa. These cases highlight the importance of investigating non-infectious causes of persistent fever in children, in a context of infectious disease endemicity.

 

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